martes, 17 de noviembre de 2009

The First Instruments In the World

I was searching to see which instruments were the first ones in the world and this is what I found:

Music is an artistic form of sound communication via musical instruments that produce sounds and tones. Music is as old as mankind. All cultures past and present have music. The "oldest known song" dates back 4,000 years ago and was written in ancient cuneiform. It is not certain how or when the first musical instrument was invented, however, most historians point to early flutes made from animal bones that are at least 37,000 years old. Below you will find the stories behind several popular musical instruments.


Charles Wheatstone invented the accordion in 1829. The accordion is played by pressing and expanding the air bellows, while the musician presses buttons and keys to force the air across reeds that produce sounds.

35,000-year-old flute oldest instrument ever found
PARIS (AFP) — Stone Age humans may have ripped raw meat from the bone with their teeth but they also played music, according to a study reporting the discovery of a 35,000-year-old flute, the oldest instrument known.
Found in the Ach Valley of southern Germany, the nearly intact five-hole flute was meticulously carved with stone tools from the hollow wing-bone of a giant vulture, says the study, published Thursday in the British journal Nature.
Fragments from three ivory flutes unearthed at the same site, along with nearby instruments not quite as old, suggest that humans who had then only recently migrated to the Upper Danube enjoyed a rich musical culture.
And a stunning female figurine from the same period found only a couple paces from the bone flute, reported last month, points to a broader artistic flowering.
Indeed, the area within the cave that yielded the flutes reveals a veritable artist's atelier.
There is debris from the flint tools used to chip the instruments; traces of worked bone and ivory from mammoth, horse, reindeer and bear; and burnt bone, one of the ingredients -- along with minerals, charcoal, blood and animal fats -- used by Stone Age humans for cave painting.
"We can now conclude that music played an important role in Aurignacian life in the Ach and Lone valleys," commented Nicholas Conard, a professor at the University of Tubingen and lead author of the study.
Aurignacian culture flourished in western Europe during what is known as the Upper Palaeolithic period, from about 40,000 to 10,000 years ago.
The bone flute, part of a treasure trove of artifacts uncovered at the Hohle Fels Cave, was found in 12 pieces scattered over an oval area the size of a large plate. It is in superb condition and reveals many details about its manufacture.
Nearly 22 centimetres (8.7 inches) long and 2.2 centimetres (one inch) in diameter, the instrument has precisely carved markings next to four of the finger holes, probably to indicate where they should be cut.
There are two deep, V-shaped notches carved into the end into which the musician blew.
Conard reports that a playable replica of the flute has not yet been made, but says it is likely to produce a range of notes comparable to many modern types of flute.
The technique for making the ivory flutes -- of which only a few fragments remain -- is far more complicated, according to the study.
First the craftsman would have hewn the rough shape of the instrument from a solid, naturally curved piece of tusk. Then the piece of ivory was split lengthwise, the halves hollowed out, and the holes carved.
Finally the two halves of the flute were rejoined with some kind of glue to form an air-tight seal.
Using radiocarbon dating techniques, Conard calculated that the newly discovered bone and ivory flutes were made at least 35,000 years ago, pushing back the age of the oldest known instrument by some 5,000 years.
Conard speculates that late Stone Age music did not contribute directly to the evolutionary success of the first modern humans.
But it may have given them a slight edge over neighbouring Neanderthals, who died out even as Homo sapiens sapiens flourished.
"Upper Palaeolithic music could have contributed to the maintenance of large social networks, and thereby have helped facilitate the demographic and territorial expansion of modern humans" compared to the more "culturally conservative" and isolated Neanderthals, he said.
Scientists have long speculated that Neanderthals played music too, but no evidence of their musicality has been found so far.

Musical Instruments
of the Ancient Greeks

Pictorial decorations, pot decorations, relief, mosaics, statues etc are a rich source of information concerning ancient musical instruments. Unfortunately very few fragments of instruments have been discovered but they are quite illuminating. Finally, the various preserved texts and works of ancient Greek literature are an invaluable source of information. 


THE LYRE: The most widely used and popular string instrument in Ancient Greece was the lyre as it was played not only by professional musicians. It was a symbol of Apollo and was not used in outdoor performances. P. Stefos presenting PHORMINXIt was the musical instrument that was primarily used as part of young people’s education and could be characterized as the national instrument of the ancient Greeks.
PHORMINX: Perhaps it is the earliest form of the ancient guitar and was mainly associated with the presentation of Homeric epics and rhapsodies. It was considered to be a sacred instrument and perhaps the oldest string instrument.
KITHARIS: It was usually designed with a square base and considered a demanding instrument as it required skillful playing therefore it was an instrument for professional musicians called “kitharodoi” and was used in music competitions. It is regarded as an improved form of the lyre and it has 12 strings whereas the lyre has 8.
VARVITOS: It has longer arms than the lyre therefore it has longer strings. This instrument has a lower extent and produces a sweeter and deeper sound than that of the lyre.
PANDOURA OR PANDOURIS: It is a three-stringed musical instrument and is considered the ancestor of the lute. It was also known to the ancient Greeks as trichordon (three-stringed).


AVLOS OR DIAVLOS: It was one of the most significant ancient Greek wind instruments used in almost all the private and public ceremonies, in national competitions, in processions and in tragedies. It was connected with the worship of the ancient God Dionysus.
CONCH-SHELL: It is a natural trumpet. Ancient Greeks usually used the shell called triton or strombus gigas or cassis.
SYRINX: A wind instrument of humble social status as it was primarily used by shepherds and was connected with Pan. The syrinx was made of reed and was also known as Pan’s syrinx. It was not used for artistic purposes.


ANCIENT MUSICAL INSTRUMENT-XUN Made of Clay The oldest ancient Chinese wind instruments dates back in the period 7000 years age. Pottery. They have different shapes; fish, pear, gourd. and so forth. size:

The harp is one of the oldest musical instruments; archaeologists discovered a wall painting in Ancient Egyptian tombs which resembled that of a harp and dates back to 3000 BC.
The harp is surprisingly easy to start. There are piano students who learn to play the harp with little difficulty because both instruments require reading music pieces in double-stave. Harps come in small sizes for kids age 8 years upwards and bigger harps for students 12 years and older. There are not a lot of people who play the harp and finding a teacher may be difficult. Nevertheless, it is one of the most beautiful sounding instruments and it's worth learning if you desire.

This Hardanger fiddle is a Norwegian folk violin. Built in 1928 by a Norwegian immigrant, Anders Odegaarden of Norway Valley, Alberta, the fiddle is made of spruce and maple. The fingerboard is inlaid with mother-of- pearl and ivory. A dragon's head decorates the scroll.
A shofar is an ancient Jewish liturgical instrument. A natural trumpet, it is usually made from a ram's horn. This shofar was a family treasure, brought to Canada ca.1900 by Vladislaw Schwartz, a Jewish immigrant from Minsk, Russia. Many Jews left Russia around this time, to escape pogroms.

Pan Flute or Syrinx
The pan flute (also known as panflute or panpipes) is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the Closed tube, consisting usually of ten or more pipes of gradually increasing length (and, at times, girth). The pan flute has long been popular as a folk instrument, and is considered the ancestor of both the pipe organ and the harmonica. The pan flute is named for its association with the rustic Greek god Pan. The pipes of the pan flute are typically made from bamboo or giant reed (Arundo donax); other materials used include wood, plastic, and metal.

This is want I found I will continue to put things so we all can learn more about music together

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